10 Things to Keep in Mind at Planting
22 Mar 2023
Planting is the most important trip you’ll make across your fields each year. Some of the biggest and most impactful steps you can take toward reaching your yield potential are completed as soon as your planter leaves the field. Here are 10 things you’ll want to consider before your planter hits the field. 1. Soil temperature Corn can germinate at 50° Fahrenheit, which is one reason that soil temperature is important. Don’t get underway with planting until the average daily temperature reaches 50° and future temperatures are predicted to be adequate for maintaining or increasing that soil temperature. 2. Soil moisture Soil moisture is also critical for proper germination and uniform crop emergence. By placing corn seed into adequate moisture, you have a greater chance of achieving even germination and emergence. During drought years, pre-irrigating soils can eliminate moisture deficit problems. In wet years, be careful driving equipment across the field so you don’t create added soil compaction. 3. Weather forecast Keep a close watch on upcoming weather and how it could affect planted seed. For example, if heavy rains are in the forecast, it may be a good idea to delay planting for a slightly later date. Wait to begin planting until future frost chances are low. 4. Soil type Soil type should also be a consideration when planting. Sandy soils tend to warm up faster than clay soils and have less nutrient and water holding capacity. In some cases, it may be better to plant the sandy soil fields first, as those soils may be drier and warmer. 5. Crusting probability Some fields are prone to crusting issues. If that sounds like some of your fields, consider planting when less rainfall is in the forecast. Keep in mind that scouting emergence issues and taking appropriate action can usually help to alleviate crusting. 6. Emergence vigor Choose corn hybrids rated high in seedling vigor in order to establish the uniform final population desired. This is especially important on farms with a history of soil crusting or when hard rains and high temperatures are in the forecast. 7. Planting depth Because corn seed imbibes 30% of its weight in water to achieve germination, corn should be a half-inch below the soil moisture line to ensure adequate moisture is available. Most seed companies and agronomists agree that corn seed should be planted at a depth between 1.5 inches and 2.5 inches. This depth will ensure that the nodal roots will develop at least 3/4 of an inch below the soil surface. The nodal roots are critical to the healthy establishment of the corn plant’s root system, as they supply the plant with nearly all nutrients during the first two weeks of seedling emergence. When the nodal roots are exposed to heat and air the root system can become compromised, reducing nutrient availability and resulting in yield reduction. 8. Seed-to-soil contact Firm seed-to-soil contact is essential. This will protect against inhibited root growth due to air pockets in the soil and will assist in water availability to begin germination. 9. Planting date When planting dates are later than in previous years, some farmers are prone to rush, often planting into soil conditions that are less than ideal. Any yield loss seen from later planting is often less costly than the soil issues that can result from early planting into poor conditions. 10. Crop residue Crop residue can impact seed depth, seed-to-soil contact and soil temperature. “Hairpinning” corn seed into previous crop residue is a common problem when planting into both no-till cropping systems and conventional tillage. This can result in skips of the final stand and cause delayed seedling emergence. And, finally, stay calm. Keep all these factors in mind, but remember that common sense plays an important role in determining what is best for every scenario. Always have your planting equipment in the best condition possible. Take time to check behind the planter and make any adjustments necessary to accomplish your final stand population. Monitors do not find all planter issues. And when in doubt, remember that making the right planting decisions is what helps you reach your maximum yield potential. Copyright © 2014 - 2023 Farmer's Business Network, Inc. All rights Reserved. The sprout logo, “Farmers Business Network”, “FBN” are trademarks, registered trademarks or service marks of Farmer's Business Network, Inc. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS. It is a violation of federal and state/provincial law to use any crop protection product other than in accordance with its label. The distribution, sale and use of an unregistered pesticide is a violation of federal and/or state law and is strictly prohibited. It is your responsibility to confirm prior to purchase and use that a product is labeled for your specific purposes, including, but not limited to, your target crop or pest and its compatibility with other products in a tank mix.
Herbicide Efficiency - How Long Will Your Residual Herbicide Actually Last?
15 Feb 2023
Herbicides — commonly known as weed killers — can work their weed-controlling ways for varying amounts of time. The length of time that an herbicide is effective is known as its residual. Herbicides with long-ranging effectiveness that are applied after planting but before crop (and weed) emergence are called residual herbicides, referring to their longevity. Weed Resistance and Residual Herbicides With weed resistance on the rise, residual herbicide usage is taking on increased importance. Using residual herbicides with several Modes of Action (MOAs) can increase the probability of acceptable weed control by giving the crop a longer time to emerge and reducing resistance pressure on post-emergence herbicides. Residual herbicides can be especially important in fields that already have herbicide-resistant weeds . These residual herbicides are selective, meaning they control certain weed species while leaving the crop being grown unharmed. They should be applied before weeds emerge. [ READ: Common Herbicide Mode of Action Groups for Weed Management ] How to Use Residual Herbicides Residual herbicides control weeds by root, shoot and seed absorption, and persistence varies between products. Therefore, selecting the correct herbicide to match the target weed’s emergence pattern is important. It is often necessary to apply an additional residual herbicide at post emergence, such as glyphosate or atrazine , to adequately control certain weed species that have an extended germination period. [READ: Choosing the Right Post-Emergence Herbicide Applications for Your Farm] Residual Herbicide Impacts on Replant and Future Crop Rotation You should also consider replant options and rotational restrictions when selecting a residual herbicide. Replant options generally come into play following a weather event that destroys the existing crop. Rotational restrictions refer to future plantings or planned crops to be grown. Make sure that the residual herbicide you choose meets your future plans for the land where you plan to use the herbicide. You can view hundreds of detailed herbicide labels here . [WATCH: Replant, Delayed Plant, and Prevent Plant 101 - What You Need To Know Webinar] How Long Will Residual Herbicides Actually Last? When many farmers are planning their weed control program, they start by thinking about how they can apply a herbicide that will provide good weed control for the entire growing season. These herbicides are said to have “residual” weed control , meaning that the herbicide remains active in preventing weed growth long after its initial spray application. But just how long is "long after?" There are a few complex variables that can impact how long your residual herbicide will be active. Here are a few common questions we hear often from farmers about how long their residual herbicide will be active and effective: How Long Will My Herbicide Be Active In The Soil? The residual activity of a herbicide is commonly referred to as its half life, which is defined as the time required to dissipate one half of the applied herbicide. A residual herbicide will have activity in the soil anywhere from days to years and is dependent on several factors including the current cropping system, soil type, soil pH and environmental conditions. For example, several herbicides have a half life that increases dramatically in drought years compared to wet years. The rotational crop response to each herbicide and crop species susceptibility to each herbicide can vary significantly. What Do I Need To Know About Chemical Carryover? A herbicide that lingers in the soil for an extended length of time (past the time you need it) could cause major problems in crop rotation plans — this is called “carryover.” Every herbicide label has information concerning any carryover issues associated with it. Be sure you know the potential carryover of the herbicides you want to use when you’re developing your weed control program. [READ: Decoding Ag Chemical Labels] Why Does Soil Adsorption Matter? Soil adsorption — that’s adsorption, not absorption — occurs when the herbicide applied to the soil becomes chemically bound to solids and renders itself unavailable for plant uptake, as well as leaching and microbial degradation. By definition, adsorption occurs when atoms, ions or molecules from a gas, liquid or dissolved solid adhere to a surface. This is important because, where crop production is concerned, soil type regulates soil adsorption. This means that your soil type can impact how plants get access to the chemicals you apply. A few things to keep in mind about soil adsorption: As organic matter and soil clay content of the soil increase, so does herbicide adsorption; this is due to the chemical reactivity and binding sites increasing in number. Wet soils adsorb lower amounts of herbicides because water fills many of the binding sites. As soil pH decreases, the soil has less positive charged particles to fill the binding sites which allows herbicide soil adsorption to increase. Herbicides that are highly water soluble do not adsorb to the soil very well and can be subject to leaching. Also, low organic matter and coarse textured soils boost the leaching probability. What Causes Herbicides To Break Down? Microbial degradation is the breakdown of herbicides by bacteria, algae and fungi living in the soil. These microbes use the herbicides as a food source and are herbicide specific, which means that the repeated use of a specific herbicide will likely result in shorter residual weed control due to a population buildup of the microbes that feed on that herbicide. A few things to keep in mind about microbial degradation and herbicide breakdown: Soils with higher organic matter favor microbe growth, while pH extremes hinder microbe activity. Soil temperature and soil moisture also regulate microbe activity. Chemical decomposition of herbicides increases with warmer soil temperatures and as soil pH decreases. Some herbicides decompose when exposed to sunlight, and will require immediate incorporation into the soil to prevent loss. [READ: Resistant Weed Control - Things Every Grower Should Know] Good Record-Keeping Is Key By observing and recording as much information as possible around your planned herbicide applications, you can make an educated guess at your residual herbicide efficiency. The information you collect is also a valuable tool to estimate any herbicide carryover issues for the following year’s crop. By following the detailed herbicide labels, which were developed after years of thorough testing and meeting government requirements, you will get the best performance from the herbicide used. Remember, the herbicide label is the law. Find the Right Herbicides for Your Operation FBN Direct® has the diverse array of herbicides you need to proactively prepare against weed pressures and keep your operation running smoothly. With detailed product labels, transparent pricing, savings opportunities, and similar product references available for each product, FBN Direct provides the information you need to make an informed decision on your herbicide strategy this season. Copyright © 2014 - 2023 Farmer's Business Network, Inc. All rights Reserved. The sprout logo, “Farmers Business Network”, “FBN”, “FBN Direct” are trademarks, registered trademarks or service marks of Farmer's Business Network, Inc. FBN Direct products and services and other products distributed by FBN Direct are offered by FBN Inputs, LLC and are available only in states where FBN Inputs, LLC is licensed and where those products are registered for sale or use, if applicable. If applicable, please check with your local extension service to ensure registration status. Nothing contained on this page, including the prices listed should be construed as an offer for sale, or a sale of products. All products and prices are subject to change at any time and without notice. Terms and conditions apply. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS. It is a violation of federal and state law to use any pesticide product other than in accordance with its label. The distribution, sale and use of an unregistered pesticide is a violation of federal and/or state law and is strictly prohibited. We do not guarantee the accuracy of any information provided on this page or which is provided by us in any form. It is your responsibility to confirm prior to purchase and use that a product is labeled for your specific purposes, including, but not limited to, your target crop or pest and its compatibility with other products in a tank mix and that the usage of a product is otherwise consistent with federal, state and local laws. We reserve the right to restrict sales on a geographic basis in our sole discretion. You must have a valid applicator license to use restricted use pesticides. Please consult your state department of agriculture for complete rules and regulations on the use of restricted use pesticides, as some products require specific record-keeping requirements. All product recommendations and other information provided is for informational purposes only. It is not intended to be a substitute for consulting the product label or for specific agronomic, business, or professional advice. Where specific advice is necessary or appropriate, consult with a qualified advisor. Neither Farmer's Business Network Inc. nor any of its affiliates makes any representations or warranties, express or implied, as to the accuracy or completeness of the statements or any information contained in the material and any liability therefore is expressly disclaimed.
Controlling Weeds with Glufosinate? Use Our Handy Cheat Sheet
13 Feb 2023
What Is Glufosinate? Glufosinate is a post emergence, non-selective herbicide for broadcast use on canola, corn, cotton, and soybean crops designated as LibertyLink® or glufosinate tolerant. Glufosinate herbicide has been around in various formulations for many years, dating all the way back to the 1990s with the introduction of Liberty® herbicide products . Today farmers have access to formulations from many different manufacturers, some packaging the same active ingredients under multiple brand names. This is often because products may be labeled for different uses, which is why it’s extremely important to read and follow the label instructions when selecting herbicides. [Find herbicides to control yield-robbing weeds and grasses on FBN Direct®.] Glufosinate Brands Available on the Market The following examples use the same active ingredient— 24.5% glufosinate ammonium —but may be labeled differently as to where they can be applied: Willowood Glufosinate 280SL Liberty® 280 SL Ignite® 280 SL Rely® 280 Cheetah® Herbicide Glufosinate Tolerant Soybeans Combination herbicide tolerances are also available, stacking glufosinate with other herbicide chemistries. Enlist™ E3 and others have the glufosinate trait combined with other herbicide traits. Confirm on the seed tag that glufosinate and other herbicides are approved for application. How to Apply Glufosinate After carefully reviewing the label on the product you plan to use, you can apply glufosinate throughout the growing season in conjunction with crop height restrictions as a post-emergence application product on tolerant crops. (To avoid severe crop injury, do not apply glufosinate post-emergence to non-tolerant crops.) Glufosinate herbicides can be applied as a standalone burndown herbicide in the fall and spring, but it is better to tank mix with different herbicide modes of action to reduce chances of seeing resistant weeds in your fields. Remember to always perform a jar test to confirm compatibility of tank-mixed products. No matter when you plan to apply glufosinate, always remember to add the appropriate adjuvant and surfactant. Rates and approved adjuvants can vary by region and tank mix partners; consult the herbicide label to figure out what you need in your area. FBN.com features an adjuvant recommendation tool to help farmers understand what products are labeled to be used with specific herbicides, like glufosinate. For products such as Willowood Glufosinate 280SL , the recommended Farmers First™ adjuvants to incorporate are Even™ 34L , IN-Zorb™ ADV or FieldGrip™ DRA . Lastly, keep excellent records during spring planting to ensure you know where you’ve planted specific tolerant crops and promote a positive experience with glufosinate. [Delay Herbicide Resistance in Weeds with These 7 Tactics] Looking for Solutions to Weed Pressures? With FBN Direct , you can easily purchase a broad range of key ag chemical products online — including glufosinate . With direct to farm delivery (including flexible scheduling based on your availability), transparent list pricing, special pricing offers and a range of exclusive discount opportunities, FBN Direct is here to help you achieve significant savings for your ag operation this season. Copyright © 2014 - 2023 Farmer's Business Network, Inc. All rights Reserved. The sprout logo, “Farmers Business Network”, “FBN”, “FBN Direct” are trademarks, registered trademarks or service marks of Farmer's Business Network, Inc. Enlist E3™ is a registered trademark of Dow AgroSciences LLC. Glufosinate 280SL and Glufosinate 280SL (OT) are registered trademarks of Willowood USA, LLC/Generic Crop Science LLC. Liberty ® 280 SL by Bayer CropScience LP, Ignite ® 280 SL and Rely ® 280 are registered trademarks of Bayer CropScience LP. Cheetah ® Herbicide and Leopard™ Herbicide are registered trademarks of Nufarm Inc. FBN Direct products and services and other products distributed by FBN Direct are offered by FBN Inputs, LLC and are available only in states where FBN Inputs, LLC is licensed and where those products are registered for sale or use, if applicable. If applicable, please check with your local extension service to ensure registration status. Nothing contained on this page, including the prices listed should be construed as an offer for sale, or a sale of products. All products and prices are subject to change at any time and without notice. Terms and conditions apply. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS. It is a violation of federal and state law to use any pesticide product other than in accordance with its label. The distribution, sale and use of an unregistered pesticide is a violation of federal and/ or state law and is strictly prohibited. We do not guarantee the accuracy of any information provided on this page or which is provided by us in any form. It is your responsibility to confirm prior to purchase and use that a product is labeled for your specific purposes, including, but not limited to, your target crop or pest and its compatibility with other products in a tank mix and that the usage of a product is otherwise consistent with federal, state and local laws. We reserve the right to restrict sales on a geographic basis in our sole discretion. You must have a valid applicator license to use restricted use pesticides. Please consult your provincial department of agriculture for complete rules and regulations on the use of restricted use pesticides, as some products require specific record-keeping requirements. Any product recommendations or preselected bundles are for informational purposes only and should not be used as a replacement for consulting the applicable product label or independently determining the appropriate product offerings and quantities for your operation. Product Use Statement: Enlist E3® soybeans contain the Enlist E3 trait that provides crop safety for use of labeled over-the-top applications of glyphosate, glufosinate and 2,4-D herbicides featuring Colex-D® technology when applied according to label directions. Following burndown, the only 2,4-D containing herbicide products that may be used with Enlist™ crops are products that feature Colex-D technology and are expressly labeled for use on enlist crops. 2,4-D products that do not contain Colex-D technology are not authorized for use in conjunction with Enlist E3 soybeans. Warning: Enlist E3 soybeans are tolerant of over-the top applications of glyphosate, glufosinate, and 2,4-D. Accidental application of incompatible herbicides to this variety could result in total crop loss. When using 2,4-D herbicides, grower agrees to only use 2,4-D products that contain Colex-D technology authorized for use in conjunction with Enlist E3 soybeans. Always read and follow herbicide label directions prior to use. YOU MUST SIGN A TECHNOLOGY AGREEMENT, READ THE PRODUCT USE GUIDE PRIOR TO PLANTING AND FOLLOW HERBICIDE RESISTANCE MANAGEMENT (HRM) REQUIREMENTS. The transgenic event in the Enlist E3® soybean is protected under Corteva Agriscience and M.S. Technologies, L.L.C. Patent Rights which can be found at: www.corteva.us/Resources/trait-stewardship.html. The transgenic event in the Enlist E3® soybean event in Enlist E3® soybeans is jointly developed and owned by Dow AgroSciences LLC and M.S. Technologies, L.L.C. ®™ Enlist, Enlist E3, the Enlist E3 logo and Colex-D are trademarks of Dow AgroSciences LLC. Please read the M.S. Technologies, L.L.C. Use Restriction Agreement located at: - http://www.mstechseed.com/use-restriction-agreement/ FBN recommendations regarding seed placement are based on field observations collected by FBN Direct, provided by FBN suppliers, contributed by member farmers or are consistent with local established agronomic practices. Individual results and performance may vary depending on local growing, soil, weather conditions, commodity prices.
Here’s How You Can Manage Insects That Overwinter in Your Corn Fields
21 Nov 2019
Your corn crop can face many different insects throughout the growing season, and it seems like they always arrive when the crop is at its most vulnerable growth stage. Insect pests have evolved their life cycles to match corn development stages. And many of the most detrimental insects overwinter in plant residue, fencelines, waterways or wooded areas, just waiting for the chance to attack. Learn which insect pests overwinter Some pests overwinter in northern climates as eggs, larvae, pupae or adults. These include: Western Rootworm Northern Rootworm European Corn Borer Western Bean Cutworm Wireworms Japanese Beetle True White Grubs Corn Flea Beetle Common Stalk Borer Seedcorn Maggot Stinkbugs Differential Grasshopper Billbug Two-spotted Spider Mite Insect pests that cannot overwinter in northern regions due to cold temperatures include: Southern Rootworm Black Cutworm True Armyworm Fall Armyworm Corn Leaf Aphid Corn Earworm Pay close attention to certain variables It is important to understand how insect pests impacted your operation this year. Most insect populations vary from year to year depending on many factors, including excessive moisture, drought, prevailing winds, tillage, winter survivability and other environmental conditions. Winter temperatures greatly influence whether or not an insect can overwinter in northern regions. There is no set line separating northern and southern regions in the U.S. when it comes to overwintering pests. In some years, Kansas and the southern parts of Missouri and Illinois can be considered part of the southern region if winter temperatures are moderate. Build your strategy to prepare for next year Understanding which pests were present this season is important when making sound decisions for the next. And, as always, timely scouting throughout the year is key any effective management strategy. 1. Know the limitations of traited seed You might have planted fully traited seed in the past in hopes of protecting your crop from insect damage. But while fully traited seed is effective at managing some insects, these seeds can be expensive and will not protect your crop from all insects. Don’t be fooled into thinking that planting traited seed is the be-all and end-all of your insect management strategy. 2. Use common tillage practices wisely Conventional tillage in the fall and spring is a good tool to use when trying to minimize overwintering insect pests. Burying residue—where many overwintering insect pests live—helps to lower overwinter survival numbers. Keep in mind that you must balance tillage practices with other agronomic concerns, such as erosion and overall soil structure. The more you till the soil, the more soil structure loss you’ll see. 3. Take a look at seed treatments and herbicide applications Seed treatments are a great tool for protecting against early-season pests, too, and insecticides applied post-emergence when needed can also protect your investment. Here are a few great post-emergence insecticides: Lambda-Cy 1EC ( Warrior® ) Bifenthrin 2EC ( Sniper® ) Chlorpyrifos ( Lorsban® 4E ) Permethrin ( Astro® ) Esfenvalerate ( Asana® XL ) Beta-cyfluthrin ( Baythroid® XL ) Carbaryl ( Sevin® SL ) Below-ground insecticide options at planting time include: Clothianidin ( Poncho® ) Bifenthrin LFC ( Bifenture® LFC, Capture® LFR ) Tefluthrin ( Force® 3G ) Chlorpyrifos ( Lorsban® 15G ) Thiamethoxam ( Cruiser® 5FS ) Remember to ALWAYS read and follow label instructions. Perform a compatibility jar test prior to mixing any products in your sprayer tank. Reviewing your scouting records and understanding which insects overwinter—and which ones don’t—will help you be proactive heading into the next growing season. Want to step up your field scouting game? Scouting your fields can provide you with greater insight into building an effective management strategy. Download our free Precision Mapping Guide to see how you can use data-driven insights on your operation. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS. It is a violation of federal and state/provincial law to use any crop chemical product other than in accordance with its label. The distribution, sale and use of an unregistered pesticide is a violation of federal and/or state law and is strictly prohibited. It is your responsibility to confirm prior to purchase and use that a product is labeled for your specific purposes, including, but not limited to, your target crop or pest or weed, and its compatibility with other products in a tank mix. Willowood Lambda 1EC, Willowood Bifenthrin 2EC are registered trademarks of Willowood USA. Cruiser®, Force® and, Warrior® with Zeon® Technology are registered trademarks of Syngenta Crop Protection, LLC. Sniper® is a registered trademark of Loveland Products, Inc. Lorsban® Insecticide is a registered trademark of Dow AgroSciences LLC. Capture® LFR and Astro® Insecticide are registered trademarks of FMC Corporation. Asana® XL Insecticide is a registered trademark of DuPont Crop Protection. Poncho®, Baythroid® XL and Sevin® SL are registered trademarks of Bayer CropScience. Bifenture® LFC is a registered trademark of UPL NA Inc. "Western corn rootworm" by entogirl is licensed under CC BY 2.0 Additional Resources: http://www.insectforecast.com Sources: http://extension.cropsciences.illinois.edu/fieldcrops/insects/ http://extensionpublications.unl.edu/assets/pdf/g2013.pdf https://entomology.ca.uky.edu/ent10 https://extension.entm.purdue.edu/fieldcropsipm/insects/corn-seedcorn-maggot.php https://hortnews.extension.iastate.edu/brown-marmorated-stink-bug https://www.ent.iastate.edu/soybeanresearch/files/page/files/FieldCropInsects%20final%202012.pdf https://extension.entm.purdue.edu/publications/E-219.pdf
Get Ahead of Fungal Diseases That Might Impact Next Year’s Corn
12 Nov 2019
With harvest wrapping up across most of the corn belt, it’s time to start thinking about next season’s input needs. One of the best ways to build your plan for next year is to consider what happened this season. Let’s look at the fungal diseases you may have seen this year and discuss what you can do to better prepare yourself for the next season’s crop. What to Look Out For Growers in the southern regions already understand that many fungal pathogens overwinter, due to milder winters. There are a few that survive in southern area, but generally can’t overwinter in the northern climates. These are blown northerly from overwintering sites in the south during the growing season. This includes: Common Rust (Puccinia sorghi) Southern Rust (Puccinia polysora) 1 Southern Corn Leaf Blight (Bipolaris maydis) 2 Some fungal pathogens overwinter in the northern and southern climates. Major examples are: Northern Corn Leaf Blight (Exserohilum turcicum) Northern Corn Leaf Spot (Bipolaris zeicola) Gray Leaf Spot (Cercospora zeae-maydis) Anthracnose Leaf Blight (Colletotrichum graminicola) 1 Tar Spot (Phyllachora maydis) 5 There are others that can overwintering in northern climates to a lesser degree, such as: Diplodia Leaf Streak (Stenocarpella macrospora) Physoderma Brown Spot (Physoderma maydis) Eyespot (Kabatiella zeae) 1 Common Smut Fungus ( Ustilago maydis) Head Smut Fungus (Sphacelotheca reiliana) 4 Prepare Now for Next Year’s Crop Hopefully, you’ve had a chance to scout your fields to identify fungal disease that may have impacted your crop this year. To be clear, fall scouting is the best way to prepare for the upcoming season. Many fungal diseases can be minimized by turning crop residue under with tillage practices . By burying infected residue, many fungal pathogens can’t survive, making the time of infection shorter the following year. Tillage works well on many fungal pathogens, but it does not completely eradicate the problem. If you utilize minimum tillage or no-till, expect fungal pathogens to potentially return. Focus on crop rotation and reducing host plants in weedy areas or fence lines. Corn is a grass, and grasses that grow next to your fields or in weedy areas of your fields can provide a place for pathogens to survive and possibly infect your upcoming crop. Another option to consider is limiting stressors that weaken the crop. Soil compaction, cold soil temperatures early in the season, excessively wet spring soils, soil fertility and seed treatment all contribute to a plant’s ability to fight pathogens later in the season. And don’t forget about genetic resistance. Most seed companies capture ratings from poor to excellent on common fungal pathogens. Understanding these ratings will help you balance fungal resistance with yield expectations. Develop a Chemical Plan That Protects Your Bottom Line Products utilizing active ingredients such as azoxystrobin, propiconazole or tebuconazole work well against these fungal pathogens. This includes fungicides such as Quadris ® or Quilt Xcel ® , Tilt ® and Custodia ® (and generic equivalents).Timely scouting and timely applications can greatly increase your bottom line. Remember to always read and follow label instructions for control of each fungal pathogen in your fields. Foliar disease impacts corn plants at a different rate every season, but understanding which pathogens we can suppress with tillage this fall and which ones overwinter in your area will greatly help you prepare for 2020. PRO TIP: Foliar diseases that are not fungal pathogens, but sometimes get confused as fungal disease, include: Stewart’s Wilt (Pantoea stewartii), which overwinters in the corn flea beetle, Goss’s Wilt and Blight (Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis), which overwinter in residue borne bacterium 1 Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus 3 Holcus Spot 6 Fungicides have no effect on bacterial or viral pathogens, so save your money and focus on genetic resistance when selecting seed varieties. Scout Your Fields with Greater Insights As we mentioned, scouting your fields is a must if you want to stay ahead of fungal diseases in next year's crops. You can up your scouting game utilizing precision maps and data specific to your farm and fields. Quadris Ⓡ , Quilt Xcel Ⓡ and Tilt Ⓡ are registered and unregistered trademarks of Syngenta. Custodia Ⓡ is a registered trademark of an ADAMA Group Company. Sources: https://fyi.extension.wisc.edu/fieldcroppathology/files/2010/09/Corn_Foliar_Disease_Cards.pdf https://cropprotectionnetwork.org/resources/articles/diseases/southern-corn-leaf-blight-of-corn https://crops.extension.iastate.edu/corn-diseases-symptoms-scouting-and-management https://ag.purdue.edu/ipia/Documents/afghanistan/SPS%20Documents/Maize-Diseases-Handout-English.pdf https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/BP/BP-90-W.pdf https://extension.umn.edu/corn-pest-management/holcus-spot-corn
Control Marestail in Your Fields with Fall-Applied Herbicides
16 Oct 2019
Marestail ( Conyza canadensis ), also known as horseweed, has become one of the most difficult weeds to manage -- especially in no-till soybean systems. 3 Marestail is a winter annual that can germinate in early fall or the following spring. Starting from a rosette cluster of leaves, stem elongation occurs quickly, with rapid growth up to 3-7 feet high. This occurs more quickly on the plants that germinated in the fall, as compared to spring germinating plants. 1 Once mature, marestail seeds are distributed mostly by wind, and a single plant can produce up to 200,000 seeds with around 80 percent viability. These seeds can germinate immediately after falling from the mother plant and can do so on top of the soil. 4 Do I need to consider a fall herbicide application? The primary goal of a fall herbicide treatment is to control small seedlings and rosettes. The best way to determine if one is necessary is to scout fields just before or right after harvest. Depending on your location, applications can be made through November, but daytime temperatures at least in the mid-50s are needed for adequate control with herbicides. 3 Fall herbicide applications are also beneficial because inclement weather may interfere with early spring treatments, enabling plants to grow too large to be controlled by herbicides. Keep in mind, however, that these fall applications might not be a replacement for pre-plant or pre-emergence herbicide treatment the following spring. 1 Herbicide resistance should be considered when dealing with marestail. If you have used certain herbicides in the past with limited success, you may have a resistance issue. When selecting herbicides, look at the mode of action group to confirm you are not using the same mode of action over and over. That would increase the chances of developing resistance. Marestail has confirmed cases of resistance with herbicide Group 2 (Classic®, Pursuit®), Groups 5 and 7 (atrazine, linuron), Group 9 (glyphosate) and Group 22 (paraquat) 2 , but not all locations will have resistance to all of these herbicides. Remember that timely fall and spring tillage, as well as certain cover crops like cereal rye planted before or after crop harvest in the fall, can also help to control marestail. 4 Ideas for your fall burndown program Application rates should be specific to marestail populations and plant height. If your marestail pressure is high or there is a history of heavy marestail pressure, mix 8 fl oz/A of dicamba , 16 fl oz/A of 2,4-D ester , 32 fl oz/A of glyphosate and a residual herbicide that contains active ingredients like metribuzin or flumioxazin . 4 Whatever residual products you add in the fall, make sure these products will not interfere with your planned crop rotation the following spring. If you feel your weed pressure is low to medium or if the field has had little marestail pressure in the past, a good post-harvest herbicide mix may be to apply 16 fl oz/A of 2,4-D ester with glyphosate at 32 fl oz/A. This mix can also be enhanced with 8 fl oz/A of dicamba DMA. In all scenarios, always read and follow the label instructions. Adjuvant recommendations are specific to each herbicide, so make sure you are adding the label-recommended combinations. Check your state regulations specifically around dicamba use to ensure that you are in compliance with local regulations. Marestail can be a tough weed to control, but timely scouting and application of approved herbicides can make it less of a challenge. Scout your fields this fall and take action where needed. Marestail is sneaky -- if you see a few now, you can bet you will see thousands in the spring. Ready to put your winter weed management plan to work? With FBN Direct , you can purchase chemical applications online and have them delivered straight to your farm. Pursuit® herbicide is a registered trademark of BASF Ag Products. Classic® Herbicide is a registered trademark of DuPont Crop Protection. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS. It is a violation of federal and state/provincial law to use any crop chemical product other than in accordance with its label. The distribution, sale and use of an unregistered pesticide is a violation of federal and/or state law and is strictly prohibited. It is your responsibility to confirm prior to purchase and use that a product is labeled for your specific purposes, including, but not limited to, your target crop or pest or weed, and its compatibility with other products in a tank mix. Sources: http://iwilltakeaction.com/weed/horseweed http://iwilltakeaction.com/uploads/files/55620-1-ta-hrm-weed-chart-poster-fnl-hr.pdf https://crops.extension.iastate.edu/cropnews/2017/10/fall-marestail-horseweed-management https://cropwatch.unl.edu/2018/management-glyphosate-resistant-marestail-fall Additional Resources: https://reader.mediawiremobile.com/USB/issues/200925/viewer?page=53 https://ag.purdue.edu/btny/weedscience/Documents/marestail%20fact%202014%20latest.pdf https://weedscience.missouri.edu/publications/50737_FINAL_FactSheet_Horseweed.pdf https://www.bookstore.ksre.ksu.edu/pubs/MF3014.pdf https://www.extension.purdue.edu/extmedia/GWC/GWC-9-W.pdf
Should I (Still) Be Tilling My Fields?
04 Oct 2019
Every year we see manufacturers rolling out new implements, universities releasing studies and smart neighbors making suggestions for your operation. So it should come as no surprise that every year, we hear this question: Should I (still) be tilling my fields? Like most questions in agriculture, the answer depends on your goals and expectations. Understanding the role of soil structure Basic soil structure is critical when considering tillage practices . Over time, good soil structure can provide numerous benefits to your fields 1 , including: Reduce bulk density Improve aggregate stability Increase organic matter Lower soil erosion Improve soil fertility Improve water infiltration Increase microbial activity Resist compaction Increase available water The impact of compaction on soil structure Compaction is a principal reason growers till. Aggressive primary tillage implements -- such as in-line subsoil rippers, disk rippers and moldboard plows -- can destroy soil structure, but they can also help alleviate compaction issues. Fieldwide compaction develops from multiple trips across your soil throughout the growing season -- especially during harvest. Heavy grain carts and combines can cause compaction, the potential for which increases on wet, saturated soils. Consider reducing the weight on your combine and grain carts by unloading more often. Also, driving the tractor/grain cart in a track previously created by the combine can help minimize field wide compaction concerns. The majority of compaction occurs after the first pass by the combine, so you can lower the footprint of your equipment by following the same path. How to offset compaction with tillage If you decide to limit tillage this fall, focus on the double-tracked areas of the field, leaving the rest to a less aggressive tillage plan or even no-till. Keep in mind, even when the soils are not saturated, surface compaction can occur. 2 The key to removing compaction with tillage is understanding the depth of the compaction pan. Don’t grab the deepest tillage implement you own; rather, till only a couple of inches below the pan. Trench compaction caused by a tractor or combine should be handled through multiple light tillage passes with a less aggressive implement at an angle to fill in the trench. 3 If the compaction zone is excessively deep, consider filling the trench and leave the rest to Mother Nature. Field tile may be beneficial if you find your equipment making deep, compacting trenches. Remember, the best way to combat soil compaction is prevention. Once compaction occurs, it can take years for the land to become highly productive again. There isn’t one tillage system that works for every situation. Understanding your goals and expectations will help you decide whether to till or not to till. Whatever you decide, do your best to protect the soil for future generations. Read this next: No-Till, Reduced and Conventional Tillage: A Cheat Sheet for Farmers (3-minute read) Sources: 1. https://crops.extension.iastate.edu/fall-tillage-and-tillage-equipment 2. https://extension.umn.edu/soil-management-and-health/fall-tillage-wet-soil-conditions 3. https://extension.umn.edu/soil-management-and-health/tillage-implements#sources-1232660
No-Till, Reduced and Conventional Tillage: A Cheat Sheet for Farmers
04 Oct 2019
As you begin planning for the next growing season, you might be wondering, “ Does tillage (still) fit into my farm operation? ” Before making any decisions, here’s a quick refresher on two tillage options -- no-till/reduced tillage and conventional tillage -- and what they can do for your fields. No-Till and Reduced Tillage No-till or reduced tillage practices allow you to spend less time in the field, save money on fuel and improve soil properties and structure. These practices leave more residue on the surface, while improving earthworm numbers and creating channels for water and nutrients to move downward. Root systems help break up light compaction areas as well. Disking is an example of a reduced tillage practice that mixes residue in the top few inches, allowing for soil microbes to get a jumpstart on breaking it down. If the soil is moist, consider running tillage equipment no more than three inches. Vertical tillage has become more popular in recent years, running one to three inches deep and fluffing the remaining residue with shallow penetration. 1 Coulters can be angled for more aggressive tillage and residue mixing. In a corn-soybean rotation using no-till, leave the corn head high and spread the trash coming out of the combine evenly. This limits the amount of residue matting the soil surface, allowing the soils to dry and warm up more quickly in the spring. The corn stalks also help to hold snow and minimize wind erosion. Planting soybeans into high residue fields works well, since they are more adaptable to the residue. Conventional Tillage Conventional tillage is still common across the country. The key is to balance residue management with improving soil structure, ensuring that you maintain at least 30 percent residue on the surface to minimize wind and water erosion throughout the winter and early spring. 2 Do not till wet or saturated soils -- this can create large clods. Excessive clodding can make it difficult to achieve a satisfactory seed bed in the spring. Chisel plows or rippers can be adjusted to run more shallow with straight shanks, limiting clodding and smearing of the soil. Keep in mind that subsoil tillage and ripping year after year does not help your bottom line. There is little information that suggests a higher return on yield after the initial compaction pan is removed. Read this next: Should I (Still) Be Tilling My Fields? (3-minute read) Sources: 1. https://extension.umn.edu/soil-management-and-health/tillage-implements#sources-1232660 2. https://crops.extension.iastate.edu/fall-tillage-and-tillage-equipment
How to Protect Your Conventional Corn from Rootworms
24 Sept 2019
Three species of corn rootworm—the western corn rootworm (WCRW) and northern corn rootworm (NCRW) , which share a similar life cycle, and the southern corn rootworm (SCRW) , also known as the Spotted Cucumber beetle—cost U.S. farmers around $1 billion every year when factoring in yield losses and input expenses. 1 Corn rootworms can be found throughout much of the corn belt , and there is significant variability in rootworm feeding within individual regions. An individual corn rootworm can lay anywhere from 500-1,800 eggs, depending on the species. Fortunately, many eggs fail to hatch due to the presence of predators, soil factors, extreme temperatures and excessive rainfall. But the corn rootworms that do hatch can pose a significant threat to the health of your crop. All corn rootworm larvae prefer to feed on corn roots, causing the most damage and yield loss, and mature larvae inflict further injury by feeding on lateral roots and burrowing into roots. Given the potential impact posed by corn rootworms, let’s discuss some options as you get ready for the next planting season so you can protect your crop and increase profit potential for your farm operation. Is traited corn worth the investment? One way to limit the effects of corn rootworms is to plant rootworm traited seed, but this can be a costly option. Is traited corn worth the investment? In many cases, the answer might be no. Rootworm traits won’t protect your corn from all soil pests. There are no known transgenic traits that control wireworm, white grubs or seed corn maggot--just to name a few. In response to this, some farmers use both rootworm traited seed and a soil-applied insecticide. But if traited seed is outside of your budget and cannot give you the control you desire, you may want to consider planting conventional corn instead. Seed treatments and soil-applied insecticides With conventional corn, you can manage corn rootworms and other below-ground pests using seed treatments and soil-applied insecticides without spending excessive amounts on traited seed. Insecticides are broad-spectrum and placed where they are needed in order to be effective. Soil-applied placement protects roots, and timely foliar applications can preserve above-ground tissue. Unlike traited corn, plant feeding doesn’t have to occur to kill the insect. To control or suppress corn rootworms and most below-ground pests, consider trying soil-applied granular products such as Aztec® 2.1G , Counter® 15G , Force® 3G , Fortress® 5G , Lorsban® 15G and generic equivalents. If you are using starter fertilizer, in-furrow products like Annex® LFR , Capture® LFR or other Bifenthrin brands with either LFR or LFC formulation are a valid choice. Other liquid delivered products that work well for soil applications include Willowood Lambda-Cy 1EC and generic equivalents. When using any insecticide, always remember to read and follow label instructions. Also, be sure to do your homework through scouting and sampling to determine the right treatment strategy for your fields. Considerations for crop rotation Crop rotation breaks up the life cycle of corn rootworms, and it is still considered one of the best cultural practices to limit the impact of the rootworm species. Keep in mind if you have heavy foxtail and/or volunteer corn in this season’s soybean crop, you may need to use a soil-applied insecticide before planting corn in that field next season. Certain NCRWs have developed a type of resistance to crop rotation known as extended diapause , meaning NCRW eggs may wait two or three years before the larvae hatch. In this scenario, if high populations of NCRW are noted in your soybeans, treat your corn with soil-applied insecticide when you plant corn-on-beans. Some WCRW rootworm variants also lay eggs outside of cornfields, particularly in soybean fields, making crop rotation less effective. Here again, use soil-applied insecticides to control larvae. Choose the best strategy to control corn rootworms on your operation Rootworm traited hybrids have their place, but their benefits come with a price. Keep in mind that not all corn rootworm pressure is the same from field to field, and you know your fields and crop rotations better than anyone. If you believe rootworm pressure is low to moderate or you plant in a soybean/corn rotation, consider planting conventional corn with a broad-spectrum insect management strategy to maximize your ROI next season. Take care of your pre-season and in-season management needs with FBN Direct℠ You can double down on savings and convenience when you shop for ag chemicals on FBN Direct . Simply buy the crop protection products you need online and get them shipped directly to your farm. It’s just one of many different ways we’re making farming better for farmers . Sources: 1. https://www.ag.ndsu.edu/publications/crops/integrated-pest-management-of-corn-rootworms-in-north-dakota Additional Sources: https://crops.extension.iastate.edu/cropnews/2015/08/corn-rootworm-management-update https://www.ent.iastate.edu/dept/faculty/gassmann/rootworm https://cropwatch.unl.edu/insect/cornrootworms http://entoweb.okstate.edu/ddd/insects/southerncornrootworm.htm Copyright © 2014 - 2020 Farmer's Business Network, Inc. All rights reserved. The sprout logo, "FBN" and "Farmers Business Network" are registered service marks of Farmer's Business Network, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. FBN Direct Services are offered by FBN Inputs, LLC and are available only in states where FBN Inputs, LLC is licensed. FBN Direct is a service mark of Farmer's Business Network, Inc. Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, adjuvants, and biostimulants can be ordered online and via mobile app. Please contact an FBN Sales representative for fertilizer and seed orders. ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS. It is a violation of federal and state/provincial law to use any pesticide product other than in accordance with its label. The distribution, sale and use of an unregistered pesticide is a violation of federal and/or state law and is strictly prohibited. We do not guarantee the accuracy of any information provided on this page or which is provided by us in any form. It is your responsibility to confirm prior to purchase and use that a product is labeled for your specific purposes, including, but not limited to, your target crop or pest and its compatibility with other products in a tank mix.
When Should I Start Soybean Harvest?
11 Sept 2019
The best time to start soybean harvest depends on your geography. In 1996, the USDA released a report, Usual Planting and Harvesting Dates for U.S. Field Crops . It says that soybean harvest should be wrapped up in North Dakota by September 22, and as you move south to Louisiana, harvest should be wrapped up by November 20. Ready to maximize your farm’s profit potential? But only time will tell how close harvest will be this year. With late soybean planting in many areas and the overall cool growing season, we may be challenged with higher-than-desired moisture at harvest time. On top of this, some farms may have excessive soil moisture, delaying farmers until the soil can support a combine. Any rutting or soil disruption in the fall can take years to fix, jeopardizing your future ROI. If this is you, do your best to limit surface and subsurface compaction. Getting moisture right in your fields As soybean leaves turn yellow and then brown, they begin to fall off the plant, exposing the pods. Ideally, soybeans within the pods should be dry enough to limit combine thresher loss, as well as loss from sickle shatter. Prime moisture for soybeans is 13-13.5 percent. However, harvesting at 15-18 percent moisture can be a good starting point if you plan to dry beans mechanically. Remember, harvesting soybeans when they are tough, or if the stems are still a little green, will require periodic combine adjustments to minimize loss. Harvest moisture can sometimes be difficult to estimate as you drive by the field. Fields with green stems or a few leaves on the plants may be ready to harvest. Scout your fields or contact your agronomist to better understand harvest timelines. Consider harvesting a small area of your field it’s a great way to capture the ideal harvest start time and better understand moisture. Percent moisture can fluctuate higher with overnight dew and drop rapidly during low humidity and windy conditions. Avoid harvesting soybeans in the late afternoon, if the moisture level of the soybean drops very low. This will help to minimize head loss due to sickle shatter. Also, as the dew comes on, moisture may reach higher than desirable levels, making it difficult for the combine to properly thresh the soybeans from the pods. PRO TIP: Pay attention to what’s happening behind the combine to check for improper threshing. Did you know that seeing just 4 to 5 soybeans per square foot can add up to losses of a bushel per acre? Why moisture matters for soybeans You may be wondering what differences there are when harvest moisture is at 15 percent, or if you wait until the moisture is at 9 percent — the difference is in overall yield, which can directly impact your bottom line. A study from the University of Nebraska stated that soybean moisture at 9 percent correlates to losing almost 4.4 percent of yield. Consider this: If you have a field that makes 75 bushels per acre at 13 percent moisture, you are selling 3.3 fewer bushels per acre at 9 percent moisture. This is big money in lost revenue when the soybeans drop to very low moistures. Thirteen percent harvest moisture is ideal, but keep the weather forecast in mind, as well as the date on the calendar. Your agronomist can help you figure out when to ideally start harvest in your area, and how to maximize your soybean profitability by limiting drying costs; your agronomist can also help you identify ways to limit overall yield losses due to excessively dry soybeans. Want an in-depth look at the math on soybean moisture? Check out this post from the University of Nebraska. Find the inputs you need through FBN Direct® You can double down on savings and convenience when you shop for ag chemicals on FBN Direct . Simply buy the products you need online and get them shipped directly to your farm. It’s just one of many different ways we’re making farming better for farmers . Copyright © 2014 - 2020 Farmer's Business Network, Inc. All rights reserved. The sprout logo, "FBN" and "Farmers Business Network" are registered service marks of Farmer's Business Network, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. FBN Direct Services are offered by FBN Inputs, LLC and are available only in states where FBN Inputs, LLC is licensed. FBN Direct is a service mark of Farmer's Business Network, Inc. Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, adjuvants, and biostimulants can be ordered online and via mobile app. Please contact an FBN Sales representative for fertilizer and seed orders. Sources: https://usda.library.cornell.edu/concern/publications/vm40xr56k https://cropwatch.unl.edu/managing-soybean-harvest-timing-moisture-improve-yield https://www.canr.msu.edu/news/recommendations_for_a_late_soybean_harvest https://swat.tamu.edu/media/90113/crops-typicalplanting-harvestingdates-by-states.pdf ALWAYS READ AND FOLLOW LABEL DIRECTIONS. It is a violation of federal and state/provincial law to use any pesticide product other than in accordance with its label. The distribution, sale and use of an unregistered pesticide is a violation of federal and/or state law and is strictly prohibited. We do not guarantee the accuracy of any information provided on this page or which is provided by us in any form. It is your responsibility to confirm prior to purchase and use that a product is labeled for your specific purposes, including, but not limited to, your target crop or pest and its compatibility with other products in a tank mix.