Kochia

Overview

Kochia (Kochia scoparia), frequently referred to as burning bush, is an invasive weed with a significant threat potential to such crops as corn and wheat.  The weed's prolific seed production, with a single plant capable of producing up to 30,000 seeds, makes it challenging to control. Kochia's developed resistance to several herbicides adds an extra layer of difficulty to its management.

(Image Credit: Phil Westra, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org)

kochia

How to Identify Kochia

Kochia plants, characterized by their bushy appearance, can reach up to 7 feet in height. Kochia presence often manifests as patches of wheat that appear stunted or yellowed. As the weed matures, it turns a distinctive reddish color, making it easier to spot in a green field.

It features a deep taproot and an erect, highly branched stem. The slightly hairy leaves of Kochia are small, narrow, and alternate along the stem. 

A distinctive feature of Kochia is its unique flower structure. The small, green, inconspicuous flowers are produced in the axils of the leaves. As the plant matures, it produces a large number of seeds enclosed in a small, hard fruit.

(Image Credit: Phil Westra, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org)

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Geographic Impact of Kochia

Kochia thrives in a wide range of soil types and climates. It has been a persistent problem for farmers worldwide, particularly in North America, Europe, and certain regions of Asia. It is especially common in the Great Plains region of the United States and the Prairie Provinces of Canada.

Timing of Kochia Emergence

Kochia is a warm-season weed, typically emerging in the spring and early summer. However, it can continue to germinate throughout the growing season if conditions are favorable. This early and sustained germination enables Kochia to establish a robust presence in the field.

How Kochia Impacts Corn

Kochia can severely impact the growth and development of corn plants. By competing for essential resources, it reduces the availability of light, water, and nutrients for the crop, leading to stunted growth, reduced vigor, and ultimately, lower yields.

Kochia can also interfere with the physiological processes of corn. For example, it can limit the photosynthetic capacity of corn by shading the crop, which in turn limits the energy production of corn plants, affecting their growth and productivity.

Additionally, Kochia can host several pests and diseases that can harm corn, including insects such as aphids and diseases like root rot and stalk rot.

(Image Credit: Phil Westra, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org)

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How to Manage Kochia in Corn

Given Kochia's significant threat to corn crops, farmers must be proactive in identifying and managing this weed to protect their yields and the health of their crops.

USA

These herbicides are preferred for managing Kochia:

Always read and follow the specific instructions on the product label for accurate application rates and guidelines.

Canada

Kochia is not a native weed in Canada, but it was transferred through equipment and seed from other countries. It’s the most important weed to control in the southern region of the Canadian Prairies as one Kochia plant can produce up to 15,000 viable seeds for the next season. 

Its ability to spread quickly and develop resistance to different herbicides, like glyphosate and Group 2 and 4 herbicides, makes Kochia a challenge to control. However, at FBN®, we offer a variety of solutions that will help Canadian farmers overcome this weed in their cornfields. 

When it comes to managing Kochia in corn, some products containing glyphosate, isopropylamine salt are labeled for use. 

Pre-seed Burn-off and Post-harvest

  • FBN Blacktail Co-Pack: This product combines two actives (Carfentrazone + 2,4 D), which are Group 4 and 14. It can be tank mixed with Smoke 540 Glyphosate for the best performance on Kochia, as well as a wide spectrum of common weeds in the fields.  

  • Maxunitech Carfentrazone 240 EC: Use a 30-45 ml/Ac rate of this Group 14 herbicide to control Kochia. It can be tank mixed with Smoke 540 Glyphosate for the best results.

  • Bromoxynil 240 EC: This product has the same active as Pardner®. It’s a Group 6 herbicide and provides very good control of Kochia when tank mixed with Smoke 540 Glyphosate either ahead of seeding corn or in crop. Using 500 ml/Ac is recommended. 

  • Disha 480: This Group 4 herbicide contains dicamba, which offers great control on Kochia especially when tank mixed with Smoke 540 Glyphosate. It can be applied at 2 oz/Ac. 

In Crop

How Kochia Impacts Wheat

Kochia competes aggressively with wheat for essential resources. It can rapidly deplete the soil of nutrients and moisture, leaving less available for the wheat plants, stunting wheat growth and reducing grain yield.

Kochia can also alter the physiology of wheat plants. By forming a dense canopy, dense Kochia can shade wheat plants and reduce their photosynthetic ability. This can lead to reduced plant vigor and lower grain quality.

Kochia can also serve as a host for pests and diseases that harm wheat. For example, it can harbor the wheat curl mite, which transmits wheat streak mosaic, a serious disease.

Mature Kochia plants can interfere with wheat harvesting. The large, bushy plants can clog machinery, leading to increased harvest time and costs and further spread of Kochia seeds.

(Image Credit: Phil Westra, Colorado State University, Bugwood.org)

Kochia

How to Manage Kochia in Wheat

Early identification and management of this weed are crucial to minimizing its impact on wheat yield and quality. Farmers are encouraged to adopt integrated weed management strategies, including crop rotation, use of certified seed, timely application of herbicides, and regular field scouting to control Kochia effectively.

To manage Kochia in wheat, consider two recommended products: 

  • Post-emergence: Huskie® Herbicide with an application rate of 12 oz per acre, with a range of 11-15 oz per acre. 

  • Post-emergence: Fancy

  • Post-harvest: Willowood Paraquat 3SL with an application rate of 2 U.S. liquid pints per acre, with a range of 1.3–2.7 pints per acre.

For a post-season or crop-termination option, Willowood Paraquat 3SL, an herbicide that contains Paraquat dichloride, is labeled for use with wheat specifically for managing Kochia. It is available from FBN

Remember, these rates are general recommendations. Always read and follow the specific instructions on the product label for accurate application rates and guidelines.

Disclaimer

© 2014 - 2024 Farmer's Business Network, Inc. All rights Reserved. The sprout logo, “Farmers Business Network”, “FBN”, “FBN Direct” are trademarks or registered trademarks of Farmer's Business Network, Inc. This content was written by Norm℠, reviewed and edited by Mikaela Tierney.

This content was generated with the assistance of Norm℠, FBN’s artificial intelligence (AI) Ag Advisor, based on a dataset of information containing general industry best practices and research. The AI model did not use specific external sources to generate this content. Our process involves using AI to aid human subject matter experts with the initial drafting and/or refinement of content. 

*GCS Atrazine 4L is a restricted use pesticide.

*Willowood Paraquat 3SL is a restricted use pesticide.

*RESTRICTED USE PESTICIDE Due to acute toxicity. For retail sale to and use by certified applicators only – NOT to be used by uncertified persons working under the supervision of a certified applicator.

Every product that labels KOCHIA as a weed, pest, or disease the product can be applied against is shown below. Click any product for label and more information.
2,4-D Amine 42,4-D Amine 42,4-D LV 42,4-D LV 4 (Albaugh)2,4-D LV 62,4-D LV 6 (Albaugh)2,4-DB 1752,4-DB 175 Herbicide2,4-DB 2002,4-DB 2002,4-DB 200 Herbicide4-Speed® XT875 BrushkillerAAtrex® 4L HerbicideAAtrex® Nine-O®Abundit® EdgeAbundit® EdgeAbundit™ Extra (Exclusively Distributed by DuPont)Accolade™ HerbicideAccord® Concentrate HerbicideAccord® XRT HerbicideAccord® XRT II HerbicideAccurate® ExtraAccurate® ExtraAccurate® HerbicideAcellus™ ATZAcquit™ 4 FAcumen® HerbicideAcuron®Acuron® FlexiAcuron® GTAffinity® BroadSpecAffinity® BroadSpec Herbicide (with TotalSol™)Affinity® TankMixAffinity® TankMix Herbicide (with TotalSol®)Afforia™Agility® SG with TotalSol® Soluble GranulesAgri Star Dicamba HDAim® EC HerbicideAim® EW HerbicideAlecto™ 41SAlion® HerbicideAlite™ 27 HerbicideAlligare 2,4-D AmineAlligare 2,4-D LV6Alligare Dicamba 2,4-D DMAAlligare Dicamba 4Alligare Diuron 4LAlligare Flagstaff™ HerbicideAlligare Imazapyr 2 SLAlligare Imazapyr 4 SLAlligare MSM 60Alligare Rotary 2 SLAlluvex™Ally® Extra SG Herbicide (with TotalSol®)Ally® Extra SG with TotalSolAlly® XPAlly® XPAmber® Custom-Pak™Amine 4 2,4-D HerbicideAmine 400 2,4-D Weed KillerAnthem® ATZ HerbicideAnthem® Flex HerbicideAnthem® HerbicideAnthem® MaxxAntik™ ECAqua Star®Aquamaster®AquaNeat® Aquatic HerbicideAquesta™ 4 FAquesta™ FRAquesta™ MTZArgosArmezon® herbicideArmezon® PRO herbicideArrest PlusArsenal® herbicideArsenal® herbicide Applicators ConcentrateArsenal® PowerLine™ herbicideAsset-S PlusAtra-5® HerbicideAtrazine 4LAtrazine 4LAtrazine 4L (ADAMA)Atrazine 4L (Drexel) HerbicideAtrazine 4L (Helena)Atrazine 4L (Loveland)Atrazine 4L (Tenkoz)Atrazine 4L Flowable Herbicide (Sipcam)Atrazine 4L herbicideAtrazine 90DFAtrazine 90DFAtrazine 90DF (Drexel)Atrazine 90DF Herbicide (ADAMA)Atrazine 90DF Herbicide (Sipcam)Atrazine 90WDGAtrazine DFAtticus Cavallo™ 4 SCAudit® 1:1Audit® 4:1Audit® 75 WDGAuthority® AssistAuthority® Edge HerbicideAuthority® EliteAuthority® First DFAuthority® MaxxAuthority® MTZ DFAuthority® Supreme HerbicideAuthority® XL HerbicideAutonomy™ HerbicideAxial® StarAxill Solutions Glufosinate 280SLBalance® FlexxBalance® ProBallast™Banvel 480 HerbicideBanvel® HerbicideBarricade® 4FLBarricade® 65WGBasagran®Base Camp® Amine 4Base Camp® LV 6Base Camp® MCP EsterBashAzon HerbicideBatalium® AmpedBatalium® IIBatalium™Battleship® IIIBeacon® HerbicideBellum®Bestow™ HerbicideBeyond® Xtra herbicideBicep II MAGNUM®Bicep II MAGNUM® FCBicep Lite II MAGNUM®Biscayne™Bison®Bison® HerbicideBK 800BL4Blanket® 4F HerbicideBlanket® HerbicideBlindside® HerbicideBOABoomer™ HerbicideBoundary® 6.5 ECBrahma 44Brash®Brawl II ATZ™Brawl II™Breakfree®Breakfree® ATZBreakfree® ATZ LiteBreakfree® NXTBreakfree® NXT [supplemental dist.]Breakfree® NXT ATZBroadaxe® HerbicideBroadAxe® XC HerbicideBroadloom® HerbicideBroadrange® 55 HerbicideBroadStar® HerbicideBroadworks™Broclean®Broclean® HerbicideBromac®Bromac® AdvancedBromacil/Diuron 40/40Bronate® Advanced™Brox® 2ECBrox®-MBrox®-M UltraBrozine®Brush-Rhap®Brushmaster® HerbicideBuccaneer® (55467-10)Buccaneer® 5Buccaneer® 5 ExtraBuccaneer® Plus (55467-9)Bullet® HerbicideBurnMaster™ HerbicideButyrac® 200CaballeroCadence® ATZ NXTCadence® HerbicideCadence® LA NXTCadence® NXT HerbicideCadence™ ATZCadence™ Lite ATZ HerbicideCadet™Calibra™Callisto®Callisto® GTCallisto® XtraCandor® HerbicideCapreno®Caravel® HerbicideCarnivore® HerbicideCasoron® CSCavalcade® 65WDG HerbicideCavalcade® PQCelebrity® PlusChange Up™ Selective HerbicideChaparral™ Specialty HerbicideCharger Basic®Charger MAX®Charger MAX® ATZCharger MAX® ATZ LiteChateau® EZChateau® Herbicide SWCheetah® HerbicideCheetah® ProCheetah™ Max HerbicideChisum™ HerbicideCimarron® MaxCimarron® Max HerbicideCimarron® Max Part BCimarron® Max Part B HerbicideCimarron® PlusCimarron® PlusCimarron® X-traCinch®Cinch® ATZCinch® ATZ LiteCinco™Ciramet™ HerbicideCivility™ ExtraClarifier®Clarifier®Clarity® herbicideClash® Selective HerbicideCleansweep® D HerbicideCleansweep™ M HerbicideCleanWave® HerbicideClearGraze™Clomate™ 3MECobra® HerbicideCollide™ HerbicideColt® ASColt®+Salvo® HerbicideColt®+Sword® HerbicideComet® Selective HerbicideCommand® 3MECommando M™Commando™Commit ATZ Lite HerbicideCommit® ATZ HerbicideCompensaComply™ HerbicideConfidence®Confidence® XtraConfidence® Xtra 5.6LCool Power®Cornbelt® 4Lb. 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HerbicideOpenSky®OpportunityOptero™OpTill® powered by Kixor® herbicideOpTill® PRO Herbicide (Liquid)OpTill® PRO powered by Kixor® herbicideOptogen™Orchard Clean®Orchard Star®Outflank™Outlaw®OverTime™ ATZ HerbicideOverTime™ ATZ Lite HerbicideOverTime™ ATZ Lite NXTOverTime™ ATZ NXTOverTime™ HerbicideOverTime™ NXTOxyfluorfen 2E HerbicideOxyStar® 2EOxystar® 4LPalace™ Selective HerbicidePanoramic® 2SLPanther® D HerbicidePanther® HerbicidePanther® MTZ HerbicidePanther® Pro HerbicidePanther® SC HerbicideParallel® HerbicideParallel® PCS HerbicideParallel® PlusParamount® herbicideParrot™ 4LParrot™ DFPastora®PasturAll® HL Specialty HerbicidePasturAll® Specialty HerbicidePasture Pro® HerbicidePastureGard® HLPastureGard® Specialty HerbicidePatriot® HerbicidePatron® 170Payback ATZPayload® HerbicidePayload® SCPeak®Pemex™Pendulum® 2G granule herbicidePendulum® 3.3 EC herbicidePendulum® AquaCap™ herbicidePerfection® Weed & Feed 21-7-14PerfectMatch™ HerbicidePermit Plus®Permit® HerbicidePerpetuo™ 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